Other Forms of Human Trafficking

Other Forms of Human Trafficking

Domestic Servitude

  • An invisible form of exploitation as the victims are hidden and not seen by the community
  • Signs include:
    • Exploitation in private households which include: housekeeping, caring for children and/or elderly
    • Long working hours with little or no pay
    • Poor living standards, no privacy, influence over movements, and constant monitoring
    • Documents are withheld and possible immigration status held against them
    • Threats and emotional/physical abuse
  • Victims tend to be international persons entering Canada through live-in caregiver program or other promises of a ‘good life’

Forced Labour

  • Can be any type of work, service, or employment
  • NOT voluntary – there is no consent to enter employment, and no permission to leave the employment
  • Can be any age, gender, nationality etc.
  • Usually involving international cases
  • Tend to involve temporary migrant workers
  • Recruitment on false pretenses and promises
  • Variety of settings including but not limited to: domestic service (live in nanny services), commercial agriculture, hospitality, construction etc.

Forced Illegal Activities

  • Illegal activities used as an effective means of controlling the victim
  • Difficult acknowledging trafficked persons are victims rather criminals
  • Most common forms: petty theft, credit card theft, marijuana grow-ops, drug deals
  • Often correlated and overlap with other forms of exploitation (i.e. ‘bottom bitch’ now procuring and luring in other girls to fill their pimps stable)


Government of Ontario (2014). Helping trafficked persons: Resource handbook for service providers. Online Training Initiative to Address Human Trafficking. 1-116.


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